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Unlimited Indemnity for Unpaid Developers?James Bottomley on liability, politics, and forgotten boilerplate

If you read this blog for open software licensing and policy, have a look at James Bottomley’s latest, “Solving the Looming Developer Liability Problem”. James shares his view on why open software licenses have warranty disclaimers, how open source went from amateur to commercial, how the recent lawsuit against Bitcoin developers fits in, and what it all means for new laws like the EU’s Cyber Resilience Act. Then he reminds us of section 9 of the Apache License and proposes that open developers expand on it to require users to financially cover them for new legal liabilities from use of their work.

A few thoughts came to mind as I read James’ post.


I see public perception much the way James does. From the outside looking in, open source is just another tool of the tech industry. From the inside, many of us want to quibble, but the outside view is mostly right, most of the time.

We should not expect special dispensation for a subset of software people just for claiming to be true friends to the common man. That has not been earned by action. It’s for others to judge.


I don’t think distinguishing individual-developer and commercial-company work is too subtle for lawmakers. It’s just not the line they care to draw. The distinction the draft Cyber Resilience Act already makes is actually far more nuanced. Here’s draft recital 10:

In order not to hamper innovation or research, free and open-source software developed or supplied outside the course of a commercial activity should not be covered by this Regulation. This is in particular the case for software, including its source code and modified versions, that is openly shared and freely accessible, usable, modifiable and redistributable. In the context of software, a commercial activity might be characterized not only by charging a price for a product, but also by charging a price for technical support services, by providing a software platform through which the manufacturer monetises other services, or by the use of personal data for reasons other than exclusively for improving the security, compatibility or interoperability of the software.

Plenty of solo-developer work is “commercial”, or wants to be. If it succeeds, it will mostly be used in business, and its maintainers will stand to reap professional, and indirectly financial, rewards.

Whether the first commit is made by a developer at work or the same developer after hours, angling to become their own boss, would actually be easier to specify legally. It wouldn’t have to rely on fuzzy terms like “noncommercial”. But it wouldn’t be very meaningful to software security, either.

Ditto where money happens to finally change hands. EU legislators put “if the product’s free, you are the product” in their own words in the draft, then had it translated into all the EU languages.

Necessary Alliance

Since I don’t see the legislative process as incapable of—or remotely interested in—making the distinction James wants, I don’t see why “individual developer Open Source has to make common cause with commercial Open Source”, either. Moreover, I don’t see what “commercial Open Source” has to gain from teaming up with a bunch of relatively unorganized, little-resourced engineering types, unless it really thinks it could get an exemption for all open code, even commercial. That seems highly unlikely. Especially given how we think they see open source, and what’s already in the draft.

I agree with James that it’s popular to dump on “corporations”. Given a choice, even open developers occupying houses purchased on a payroll will prefer to see and describe themselves as “independent”, seconded “community” members, rather than “corporate developers”. There are easy rhetoric points to be scored elbow-jabbing “corporate”, and everyone knows it, but it’s hard to exchange those points for policy.

The vast majority of corporations and other kinds of legal entities are tiny. The point of them is exactly to limit personal liability of a few participants, not receive money shots from public or private investors. Developers seriously concerned about personal liability for their open work who don’t want to work for someone else’s company would do well to consider forming their own.


James rightly points out that indemnities are an established and familiar mechanism for moving liability from where the law puts it to where it economically belongs. Can confirm. But the approach he proposes—having users indemnify developers of open code—wires that system up exactly backwards.

Those best informed, able, and empowered to assess and address security and quality risks in a software project are its developers. That’s reflected in supply chains, which use contract terms to put suppliers on the hook for customer problems caused by their products, not just through support and maintenance obligations, but indemnities. If your friend offered you their old car for free, but required you to absolve and financially cover them for any injury caused by driving it, would you still take the car? Laugh it off as a joke? The moral hazard’s so obvious, it’s humorous.

All of this comes across every day in business-to-business software buying. Indemnities, and especially indemnities without any dollar limits, immediately and reliably raise red flags to buyers. What indemnities cover and how they’re limited remain on infinite repeat for negotiators.


Section 9 of Apache 2.0 hasn’t been a persistent issue, in my view, because even most license wonks have never heard of it, much less read it critically:

Section 9 of Apache 2.0

While redistributing the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer, and charge a fee for, acceptance of support, warranty, indemnity, or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only on Your own behalf and on Your sole responsibility, not on behalf of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability incurred by, or claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability.

They haven’t been prompted to read it, because while it’s not the clearest language in the world, it’s easy to read as very narrow. I’m a story collector, not a walking representative sample, but I’ve never seen or heard of it enforced. When would the law make an open project contributor liable “by reason of” someone else offering supply-chain-style protections for their code? As James point out, this could well miss situations where legislators, rather than software vendors, sign the terms imposing new liability.


Public laws may be coming that force open software contributors to take more responsibility for the quality and security of their work. At least in the EU, people writing those laws seem attuned to the reasoning behind warranty disclaimers in open licenses for hobby projects. But the laws very likely will hold at least some open projects responsible. I don’t see winning argument why that line should be drawn along any legal formality—entity status, form of compensation—rather than where interest butts up against the public good.

If we end up under new laws like that, the natural response I expect will be four-fold:

  1. More developers will feel pressure to read up on quality and security processes and tools and adopt them. This will give commercial open consumers more of what they want, at the devs’ expense.

  2. More small-group and independent developers will form legal entities, like limited liability companies in the USA, to shield themselves from personal liability. More copyright lines in notice files like “X Inc.” and “Y LLC” than personal names.

  3. Larger companies will fund the hiring of more proven open developers through foundations, under cover of employment and independent-contracting terms.

  4. More developers will proactively commercialize their work, both to cover the costs of protecting themselves and as they discover that the first few boxes on a checklist for self-protection overlap the list for setting up to do business.

I expect many lawmakers’ aids foresee the same. Pushing supply chains they can regulate and hold responsible down onto more of software production likely suits them.

Your thoughts and feedback are always welcome by e-mail.

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